Dakin Solution Alters Macrophage Viability and Function
ARMY INST OF SURGICAL RESEARCH FORT SAM HOUSTON TX ARMY DENTAL AND TRAUMA RESEARCH DETACHMENT
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Background Macrophages are important in wound defense and healing. Dakin s solution DS, buffered sodium hypochlorite, has been used since World War I as a topical antimi crobial for wound care. DS has been shown to be toxic to host cells, but effects on immune cells are not well documented. Materials and methods DS at 0.5, 0.125, and ten fold serial dilutions from 0.25 0.00025 were evaluated for cellular toxicity on murine macrophages J774A.1. The effect of DS on macrophage adhesion, phagocytosis, and generation of reactive oxygen species was examined. Macrophage polarization following DS exposure was determined by gene expression using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. Results Concentrations of DS 0.0025 reduced macrophage viability to 5 in exposure times as short as 30 s. Similarly, phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeru ginosa, and Aspergillus flavus were significantly reduced at all tested concentrations by macrophages pretreated with DS. H2O2 production was reduced by 8 38 following treatment with 0.00025 0.125 DS. Macrophage adherence was significantly increased with 0.0025 DS after 15 min of exposure compared with controls. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that DS exposure resulted in classical macro phage activation, with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase 2, inter feron g, and interleukin IL 1b. Conclusions DS at clinically used concentrations 0.025 0.25 was detrimental to macrophage survival and function. For optimal clinical use, understanding the impact of DS on macrophages is important as depletion may result in impaired pathogen clearance and delayed healing. These findings indicate that 0.00025 DS is a safe starting dose however, optimal use of DS requires further validation with in vivo models.
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