Stability in the Offense: The Evolution of Civil Affairs During World War II
ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE FORT LEAVENWORTH KS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY STUDIES
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Transitional failures in Iraq and Afghanistan created a fundamental shift in how the Army views its war-fighting role. As a result, the Army created the concept of Unified Land Operations. Army Doctrinal Publication 3-0 Unified Land Operations ULO calls for the ...continuous, simultaneous combinations of offensive, defensive, and stability.... Using a chronologic presentation of the conduct of civil affairs and military government operations in the European Theater during World War II, this monograph tests the concept of stability operations executed during offensive operations. My hypothesis is that the Allies experience in World War II provides evidence that, when planned and resourced appropriately, stability and offensive operations can be conducted continuously and simultaneously, setting the conditions for a military and political victory. This monograph uses a number of sources to include official operation reports from the 12th Army and the Armys official histories discussing civil affairs and the occupation of Germany. This monograph concludes that the methods and lessons learned by Allied leaders when employing civil affairs forces with combat forces during World War II have application to todays war-fighter. Gaps exist in ULO in that it describes the interagency as the organization responsible for stability and fails to specifically identify the militarys role in stability beyond security. In operations that require an interim government ULO does not address the necessity to create a separate stability force that is operationally and logistically capable, and integrated with combat forces prior to the commencement of operations. Failure to do so is a return to the pre-World War II ad hoc nature of stability operations and increases risk to mission success.
- Government and Political Science