Nitrate and Perchlorate Destruction and Potable Water Production Using Membrane Biofilm Reduction
ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY TECHNOLOGY CERTIFICATION PROGRAM OFFICE (DOD) ARLINGTON VA
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Perchlorate is a strong oxidizer that is primarily used in solid rocket fuels, fireworks, explosives, and road flares. While perchlorate can be generated from natural processes, the majority of occurrence in the United States U.S. is from anthropogenic sources. Perchlorate is a human health concern because it can prevent assimilation of iodide in the thyroid by competitively inhibiting its uptake. Iodide regulates normal functions of the thyroid and is critical in the growth and development of fetuses, infants, and children. Nitrate NO3 - is commonly found as a cocontaminant in water with perchlorate because ammonium nitrate is a main component in rocket fuel and explosives. Anoxic biodegradation can be used to treat perchlorate and nitrate, and it can result in complete destruction of the contaminants. The membrane biofilm reactor MBfR process demonstrated in this project used the latest advances in membrane technologies and included anoxic biological reduction using a staged hydrogen-fed membrane biofilm reactor, aerobic biological stabilization, media filtration, and disinfection. The purpose of this Demonstration was to evaluate the feasibility of the MBfR to destroy perchlorate and nitrate in groundwater and produce potable water. Performance objectives were met for nitrate but not for perchlorate. Most of the perchlorate was destroyed, and the average effluent concentration was 9.2 micrograms per liter gL, compared to a performance objective of 6 gL.
- Inorganic Chemistry
- Reciprocating and Rotating Engines
- Water Pollution and Control