Environmental Fate and Transport of a New Energetic Material CL-20
ARMY EDGEWOOD CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL CENTER APG MD
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This project was undertaken to assess the potential ecological impacts of the release of CL-20 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane into the environment. These investigations produced experimental data on the toxicity of cyclic nitramine CL-20 to terrestrial plants, soil invertebrates, and aquatic species. Terrestrial ecotoxicological investigations were specifically designed to meet the USEPA criteria for ecological soil screening level Eco-SSL derivation. A natural soil, Sassafras sandy loam, was used in all toxicity studies. Sassafras sandy loam SSL had low organic matter and clay contents, fulfilling the USEPA Eco-SSL requirement for plant and soil invertebrate testing of using soil with characteristics that support relatively high contaminant bioavailability. We also examined the effects on ecotoxicity of weathering and aging of CL-20 in soil, investigated the effect of CL-20 on the indigenous soil microinvertebrate community, examined the effect of CL-20 on litter decomposition, plus investigated the transport and fate of CL-20 in the environment using a system of standardized intact soil-core microcosms to assess potential toxicity in groundwater, fate endpoints, including persistence and mobility, and plant bioaccumulation potential. Special consideration was given to the effects of weathering and aging of CL-20 in soil on the exposure of ecological receptors in order to more closely simulate the potential exposure effects in the field. All ecotoxicological parameters were established using analytically determined CL-20 concentrations. Toxicity of CL-20 to terrestrial plants was assessed according to protocols of American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM standard guide for conducting terrestrial plant toxicity tests, and the USEPA early seedling growth test.
- Organic Chemistry
- Physical Chemistry
- Environmental Health and Safety