Accession Number:

ADA609264

Title:

Death on the battlefield (2001-2011): Implications for the Future of Combat Casualty Care

Descriptive Note:

Journal article

Corporate Author:

ARMY INST OF SURGICAL RESEARCH FORT SAM HOUSTON TX

Report Date:

2012-12-01

Pagination or Media Count:

8.0

Abstract:

Critical evaluation of all aspects of combat casualty care, including mortality, with a special focus on the incidence and causes of potentially preventable deaths among US combat fatalities, is central to identifying gaps in knowledge, training, equipment, and execution of battlefield trauma care. The impetus to produce this analysis was to develop a comprehensive perspective of battlefield death, concentrating on deaths that occurred in the pre-medical treatment facility pre-MTF environment. METHODS The Armed Forces Medical Examiner Service Mortality Surveillance Division was used to identify Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom combat casualties from October 2001 to June 2011 who died from injury in the deployed environment. The autopsy records, perimortem records, photographs on file, and Mortality Trauma Registry of the Armed Forces Medical Examiner Service were used to compile mechanism of injury, cause of injury, medical intervention performed, Abbreviated Injury Scale AIS score, and Injury Severity Score ISS on all lethal injuries. All data were used by the expert panel for the conduct of the potential for injury survivability assessment of this study. RESULTS For the study interval between October 2001 and June 2011, 4,596 battlefield fatalities were reviewed and analyzed. The stratification of mortality demonstrated that 87.3 of all injury mortality occurred in the pre-MTF environment. Of the pre-MTF deaths, 75.7 n 3,040 were classified as nonsurvivable, and 24.3 n 976 were deemed potentially survivable PS. The injuryphysiologic focus of PS acute mortality was largely associated with hemorrhage 90.9. The site of lethal hemorrhage was truncal 67.3, followed by junctional 19.2 and peripheral-extremity 13.5 hemorrhage.

Subject Categories:

  • Medicine and Medical Research
  • Weapons Effects (Biological)

Distribution Statement:

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE