Numerical Study of Primary Blast Injury to Human and Sheep Lung Induced by Simple and Complex Blast Loadings
DEFENCE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CANADA VALCARTIER (QUEBEC)
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Detailed finite element models of two-dimensional horizontal slices of a human and a sheep thorax have been developed and validated with the limited data available in the open literature. The main goal of this study is to verify if the injuries observed in the animal are truly representative of human lung injuries for simple and complex blast loadings for different blast wave orientation. The sheep and human models were subjected to simple and complex blast loadings. In the case of simple blasts, nine curves that represent the threshold for lung injury and 1 and 50 probabilities of lethal lung damage for three different positive phase durations were simulated. Three different criteria were used for the assessment of lung damage from the numerical results. They are the maximum lung overpressure, the percentage of the lung volume as a function of the lung maximum pressure and the pressure-time history within the lung. Results showed that humans are predicted to have higher tolerance to blast than sheep. Lung damage development in sheep is predicted to be more dependent on the blast wave duration and orientation than in the human lung. In the case of complex blasts, three curves were simulated each characterized by two different peak overpressures. Results show that damage to human and sheep lungs is considerable when the second peak overpressure closely follows the first one.
- Medicine and Medical Research
- Numerical Mathematics
- Fluid Mechanics