Grenade Range Management Using Lime for Dual Role of Metals Immobilization and Explosives Transformation
Implementation guidance manual
ENGINEER RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER VICKSBURG MS ENVIRONMENTAL LAB
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The Department of Defense DoD operates numerous hand grenade ranges HGR for training purposes. Live fire training creates a potential source zone for munitions constituents such as metals and explosives. Fragmentation grenades, typically containing Composition B 60 RDX, 39 TNT, 1 wax binder within a steel shell casing, constitute the majority of hand grenades used at fixed position ranges. Explosives have been detected in HGR soils at levels from the low parts per billion gkg up to percent levels. RDX has been detected in leachate waters below live fire HGRs and in surface waters leaving range impact areas Jenkins et al., 2001, Pennington et al., 2001 2002. The migration of metals and explosives, in both soluble and particulate forms, from the impact areas of the ranges occurs through a variety of mechanisms, including 1 transport in surface water following rain and storm events, 2 transport with soil particulates following rain and storm events, and 3 leaching through the subsurface towards groundwater. Effective management of metals and explosives on HGRs requires an understanding of the natural and engineered processes controlling their fate and transport at these sites. This project is based on the premise that increased alkalinity, caused by lime addition to soil, will result in 1 significantly decreased water solubility of heavy metals present in the soils and 2 base-catalyzed transformation of explosives that will eliminate migration of RDX- and TNT-based explosives from the range area. In addition, the demonstrated technology would meet the criteria for active range management in that it would be inexpensive easily applied in remote locations effective on heterogeneous contaminant distributions effective over large areas effective on multiple compounds nonintrusive, to the extent possible and able to be incorporated into normal range maintenance operations.
- Inorganic Chemistry
- Solid Wastes and Pollution and Control