Accession Number:

ADA604015

Title:

Bioavailability of Lead in Small Arms Range Soils

Descriptive Note:

Final rept. 2002-2006

Corporate Author:

ARMY CENTER FOR HEALTH PROMOTION AND PREVENTIVE MEDICINE ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD

Report Date:

2007-09-01

Pagination or Media Count:

168.0

Abstract:

Ammunition manufacture is the second largest consumer of lead in the United States, after batteries, and represents approximately 80,000 metric tonnes per year. About 3000 small arms ranges exist, the berms of which act as reservoirs for spent ammunition, and the DoD has a vested interest in monitoring the status of these sites so that military personnel may continue to be trained in a sustainable environment. Risk management of lead at small arms ranges depends on the site end use, whether the range is open or closed, and whether the risk drivers are human or ecologic. EPA risk assessment guidelines allows for applications of site specific bioavailability for lead, where this bioavailability differs from the assumed default of 60. Assessing the site specific bioavailability of lead has historically been carried out using the in vivo juvenile swine model, but significant reduction in cost and time could be achieved by using less expensive, less technical, and less time consuming in vitro models. This study compared bioavailability of lead from small arms range soils from eight different sites, using both an established in vivo and in vitro method. The in vivo method was based on the measured absorption of soil-lead compared to lead acetate by swine dosed daily for 14 days, using the ratio of the blood dose-response slopes for each compound. For the in vitro method lead was extracted from an aliquot of soil for one hour at 37 deg C using glycine-HCl buffer at pH 1.5. The extractable lead was expressed as a percentage of the total lead in the sample. The initial aims of the study were to compare a projected range of bioavailability in a range of soils, creating a linear comparison between both methods. However, all eight soils carefully selected for testing were determined to have high bioavailability, regardless of source, pH, CEC, or organic matter.

Subject Categories:

  • Inorganic Chemistry
  • Geology, Geochemistry and Mineralogy
  • Metallurgy and Metallography
  • Ammunition and Explosives

Distribution Statement:

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE