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Evaluation of Attractive Toxic Sugar Bait (ATSB) - Barrier for Control of Vector and Nuisance Mosquitoes and Its Effect on Non-target Organisms in Sub-tropical Environments in Florida

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The efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits ATSB with the active ingredient eugenol, an EnvironmentalProtection Agency exempt compound, was evaluated against vector and nuisance mosquitoes in bothlaboratory and field studies. In the laboratory, eugenol combined in attractive sugar bait ASB solutionprovided high levels of mortality for Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus. Field studies demonstrated significant control 70 reduction for Aedes atlanticus, Aedes. infirmatus, andCulex nigripalpus and 50 reduction for Anopheles crucians, Uranotaenia sapphirina, Culiseta melanura, andCulex erraticus three weeks post ATSB application. Furthermore, non-target feeding of six insect orders,Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hemiptera, and Orthoptera, was evaluated in the fieldafter application of a dyed-ASB to flowering and non-flowering vegetation. ASB feeding staining wasdetermined by dissecting the guts and searching for food dye with a dissecting microscope. The potentialimpact of ATSB on non-targets, applied on green non-flowering vegetation was low for all non-targetgroups 0.9. However, application of the ASB to flowering vegetation resulted in significant stainingof the non-target insect orders. This highlights the need for application guidelines to reduce non-targeteffects. No mortality was observed in laboratory studies with predatory non-targets, spiders, prayingmantis, or ground beetles, after feeding for three days on mosquitoes engorged on ATSB. Overall, ourlaboratory and field studies support the use of eugenol as an active ingredient for controlling importantvector and nuisance mosquitoes when used as an ATSB toxin. This is the first study demonstrating effectivecontrol of anophelines in non-arid environments which suggest that even in highly competitive sugarrich environments this method could be used for control of malaria in Latin American countries.

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  • Biology
  • Toxicology

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