Accession Number:

ADA596654

Title:

Biological Responses in Rats Exposed to Cigarette Smoke and Middle East Sand (Dust)

Descriptive Note:

Research for 6 Jan 2009-8 Jan 2010

Corporate Author:

NORTH CAROLINA STATE UNIV AT RALEIGH SCHOOL OF VETERINARY MEDICINE

Report Date:

2012-01-01

Pagination or Media Count:

17.0

Abstract:

Respiratory symptoms are frequently reported in personnel deployed to the Middle East. This project characterized the respiratory toxicity of inhaled Iraqi sand IS. Adult rats underwent a 6-wk inhalation to air or mainstream cigarette smoke MSCS 3hd, 5dwk that included exposure to IS or crystalline silica 1 mgm3, 19hd, 7dwk or air during the last w weeks. Assessments included motor activity, whole-body plethysmography, cytological and biochemical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lung metal burden, nasal and lung pathology and changes in lung protein and gene expression. A number of metals including nickel, manganese, and vanadium concentrations wee seen in IS-exposed rats, suggesting that several metals present in IS are bioavailable. Rats exposed to IS only developed mild inflammation in the anterior nose and lung. Silica inhalation was associated with some pulmonary responses that were not seen in IS-exposed rats, such as mild laryngeal and tracheal inflammation, mild tracheal epithelial hyperplasia, and elevated lung silica concentrations. MSCS inhalation with or without co-exposure to MSCS and silica has more widespread airway lesions when compared with rats exposed to MSCS only. Silica-exposed rats had more robust pulmonary gene expression and proteomic responses than that seen in IS-exposed rat. Our studies show that the respiratory toxicity of IS is qualitatively similar to or less than that seen following short-term silica exposure.

Subject Categories:

  • Medicine and Medical Research
  • Stress Physiology
  • Toxicology

Distribution Statement:

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE