Accession Number:

ADA592754

Title:

NATO's Options for Defensive Cyber Against Non-State Actors

Descriptive Note:

Civilian research project

Corporate Author:

SYRACUSE UNIV NY

Personal Author(s):

Report Date:

2013-04-01

Pagination or Media Count:

36.0

Abstract:

Overt state-to-state cyber conflicts are unlikely for the foreseeable future states prefer to retain plausible deniability through surreptitious sponsorship of non-state cyber militias. International legal norms, NATOs Article 5 requirements, and UN Security Council procedural issues seem to limit NATOs options in responding to cyber events by non-state actors. However, there are three circumstances under which NATO may legally take cyber countermeasures against non-state actors 1 when a nation-state fails to enforce the law against non-state actors within its borders 2 when a cyber-disruption is tantamount to an economic blockade and 3 if there is intelligence that indicates a pending cyber-attack by force, thereby necessitating anticipatory self-defense. The decision by NATO after 911 to pursue a non-state terrorist organization was a normative shift internationally prior to this event, counterterrorism was widely viewed as a law enforcement issue. With China and Russia as permanent members of the UN Security Council, resolutions against countries for harboring cyber militias are unlikely. Both nations routinely tolerate-if not sponsor-cyber militias. NATO is the one enforcement arm with the resources to thwart the illicit militias.

Subject Categories:

  • Government and Political Science
  • Computer Systems Management and Standards
  • Military Forces and Organizations

Distribution Statement:

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE