Irregular Warfare: The Maoist Challenge to India's Internal Security
JOINT SPECIAL OPERATIONS UNIV MACDILL AFB FL
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India has a tradition of peasant uprisings. The Telengana insurrection 1946-1951 in Andhra Pradesh was the first major uprising of peasants in independent India. It was very broad-based and has been unparalleled since Indias War of Independence in 1857. The peasants launched their struggle on economic issues against forced labor, illegal exactions, and unauthorized evictions, but it soon developed into an uprising against the feudal rule of the Hyderabad monarchy, the Nizam. The movement was directed by Communists from the very beginning and they mobilized large segments of the population. The peasants were able to establish their control over about 3,000 villages and their influence extended over several others. Armed struggle continued even after the Indian troops had liberated Hyderabad. About 4,000 lives were lost in the prolonged struggle until support was formally withdrawn by the Communist Party. It was an important landmark in the history of peasant struggles in the subcontinent. The Communist movement in India split during 1964 in the aftermath of the Chinese-Indian border conflict 1962 instigated by China. The movement split into the Communist Party of India Right owing allegiance to the Soviet Union, and the Communist Party of India Left owing allegiance to the Peoples Republic of China. In due course, the parties came to be known as the Communist Party of India CPI and the Communist Party of India-Marxist CPM respectively. The CPM was split further when the extremists in their ranks formed, on 22 April 1969, the CPI Marxist-Leninist based on the Thoughts of Mao Zedong this wing gradually evolved into what is today known as the CPI Maoist, and it is this group that is posing a formidable threat to the Indian State. The Naxalite movement started in 1967 in a small village called Naxalbari situated at the tri-junction of India, Nepal, and East Pakistan now Bangladesh. It was a peasant uprising spearheaded by the Santhal tribals.
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