Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of Blast Retrofit of Windows
ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS VICKSBURG MS ENGINEER RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER
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Retrofitting windows against blast load environments is a topic under considerable investigation. The retrofits added to existing buildings need the strength either to survive under the explosive loadings andor to protect the building occupants. A retrofit method must prevent the glazing from entering the structure, while maintaining its structural integrity, before that retrofit method can be considered for installation within a facility. In order to provide design concepts for explosive testing, an iterative process was undertaken with finite element FE simulations for each retrofit design to develop retrofit details that meet the objectives of protection and structural integrity. Multiple variations of a particular retrofit can be simulated at a cost much less than required to test the variations. Three different retrofit methods were investigated in this study a vertical blind system, a muntin frame anchored to vertical steel tubes, and a muntin frame anchored to a rigid reinforced concrete wall. An initial concept was developed for each case and a preliminary design done. Each concept was rigorously analyzed using FE simulations to determine the member sizes that were needed to resist the blast loading and prevent the penetration of glass fragments into the structure. Results from each simulation will be compared against experimental data to assess the finite element models. By performing a substantial number of simulations, several successful retrofit concepts were developed with a considerable cost savings over a purely experimental investigation.
- Structural Engineering and Building Technology