Development of Toxicity Benchmarks for Nitrogen-based Energetic Materials for the Enchytraeid Worm, Enchytraeus crypticus
Final rept. Apr 2004-Dec 2012
ARMY EDGEWOOD CHEMICAL BIOLOGICAL CENTER APG MD
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We investigated individual toxicities of nitrogen-based energetic materials EMs 2,4-dinitrotoluene 2,4-DNT, 2-amino-3,6-dinitrotoluene 2-ADNT, 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene 4-ADNT, nitroglycerin NG, and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine HMX to the potworm Enchytraeus crypticus using the Enchytraeid Reproduction Test ISO 163872004. Studies were designed to generate ecotoxicological benchmarks for developing the ecological soil screening levels Eco-SSLs for risk assessments of contaminated soils, and to identify and characterize the predominant soil physicochemical parameters that affect the toxicity of 2,4-DNT to E. crypticus. Soils with a wide range of physicochemical parameters included Teller sandy loam, Sassafras sandy loam, Kirkland loam, and Webster clay loam. Reproduction EC50 values mg kg 1 for EMs weathered-and-aged W-A in sandy loam soils were 27 2,4-DNT, 37 4-ADNT, 103 2-ADNT, 146 NG, and 10,208 HMX. Reproduction toxicity of 2,4-DNT W-A in soil, based on EC50 values, correlated strongly with soil organic matter and clay contents. Toxicity benchmarks established in TSL and SSL have been submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Eco-SSL Workgroup for use in developing soil invertebrate-based Eco-SSLs for 2,4-DNT, 2-ADNT, 4-ADNT, and NG.
- Geology, Geochemistry and Mineralogy