Phase-Field Analysis of Fracture-Induced Twinning in Single Crystals
ARMY RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD WEAPONS AND MATERIALS RESEARCH DIRECTORATE
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Deformation twinning at the tip of a straight crack or notch is analyzed using a phase-field method that seeks equilibrium twin morphologies via direct minimization of a free energy functional. For isotropic solids, the tendency to twin under mode I or mode II loading is found to depend weakly on Poisson s ratio and elastic nonlinearity and strongly on surface energy and twinning shear i.e., eigenstrain. Depending on the coherent twin boundary energy, anisotropy of surface energy is important for mode I loading but less so for mode II. Model predictions for several single crystals are in agreement with experimental observations. Calcite demonstrates a preference for mode I cleavage crack extension over crack tip twinning. Magnesium shows a likelihood for tensile twinning from a pre-existing crack on the basal plane. In sapphire, a preference for rhombohedral twins over basal twins is apparent, with the latter thinner in shape than the former.
- Physical Chemistry