Development of Environmental Health Criteria for Insensitive Munitions: Aquatic Ecotoxicological Exposures Using 2,4-Dinitroanisole
ENGINEER RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER VICKSBURG MS ENVIRONMENTAL LAB
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Insensitive munition formulation IMX-101 consists of 2,4-dinitroanisole DNAN, 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one NTO, and nitroguanidine NQ. While general aquatic ecotoxicological information is available for two of the IMX constituents NTO and NQ, such data are not known to be available for DNAN. Thus, acute and chronic aquatic toxicity bioassays were conducted using standard fish Pimephales promelas and invertebrate Ceriodaphnia dubia models. Chemical analysis of test water indicated that DNAN concentrations were relatively stable during the bioassays. Acute toxicity was similar for the two species tested, with 48-hr lethal median concentrations LC50 ranging from 37 to 42 mgL DNAN. Chronic toxicity tests indicated that fish survival 7-day LC50 10 mgL was significantly more sensitive to DNAN relative to the invertebrate no significant impact on survival at 24 mgL. However, the reproduction endpoint for the invertebrate was significantly more sensitive to DNAN than survival. When assessing the most sensitive chronic endpoints, the two test species indicated similar chronic toxicity, with lowest observable adverse impacts ranging from 10 to 12 mgL DNAN and median effects on sublethal endpoints growth, reproduction ranging from 11 to 15 mgL DNAN. Chronic no-effect concentrations ranged from approximately 6 to 8 mgL DNAN.
- Ammunition and Explosives
- Water Pollution and Control