Evaluation of the Occupational Risks from Jet Fuel (Toxicity Screening Battery)
Special rept. Oct 2010-Dec 2011
AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH HUMAN PERFORMANCE WING (711TH) HUMAN EFFECTIVENESS DIRECTORATE
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Studies are needed to identify the potential toxicity of alternative jet fuels and to develop occupational exposure limits OELs. A full toxicity program is costly and time consuming. Currently, there are too many novel alternative and bio-based jet fuels being rapidly developed to conduct full toxicity programs for each new fuel. The goal of this study was to design three in vitro approaches suitable for use as screening tests for the fuel evaluation process. A cytokine screen was used to examine blood from rats exposed to an alternative jet fuel. Although cytokines were detected, the data were inconsistent and highly variable. A more refined array of cytokines is needed. Development of an in vitro screen for lung cells could replace or reduce the number of inhalation studies required to screen bio-based jet fuels. A previously developed co-culture was successfully adapted for used with alternative jet fuels. This in vitro method of exposing human lung and immune cells, in conjunction with mitochondrial viability and cytokine measurements, showed promise as a means of rapidly assessing fuel toxicity and effects on the lung. Two human cell models also were evaluated for their potential to properly assess dermal irritation caused by jet fuel. The first model was a commercially available three-dimensional human skin equivalent model which was not predictive for jet fuels. The second model was a human epidermal keratinocyte cell line isolated from adult human skin, which showed potential for identifying dermal irritation.