Goal Orientation Framing and Its Influence on Performance
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND PUBLIC POLICY
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Motivated by the Regulatory Focus Theory and the Offensive Mindset Theory, the author researched the influence of framed instructions offensive, defensive, no messaging in stressful and stress-free environments. A total of 213 volunteers from the Naval Postgraduate School and the Presidio of Monterey participated in the study. One hundred ninety-one were students enrolled in graduate level studies or foreign languages and 22 were staff professors and lecturers. Of the 213 volunteers, 29 were female and 184 were male. All participants were over the age of 18. Participants completed one of two tests a basic math test in a quiet room and a simulated shooting game in a room with the games volume maximized. Participants rolled dice to randomly select the framing instructions that they would be given. In the basic math test, participants who received framed instructions consistent with their regulatory focus answered more questions correctly than those who received framed instructions that were incompatible with their regulatory focus. For example, a promotion-focused participant receiving defensive messaging answered fewer questions correctly than a promotion-focused participant receiving offensive messaging. Under simulated shooting, offensive framing showed an increase in both speed and accuracy regardless of regulatory focus. This research represents one of the first tests of regulatory focus and messaging conducted under stress. The results were unexpected and may open new doors in research.
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