The Emergence of Transnational Terrorist Safe Havens: A Comparative Analysis of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas in Pakistan and Kabylia in Algeria
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA DEFENSE ANALYSIS DEPT
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This thesis analyzes the similarities and unique conditions that have made the FATA and Kabylia safe havens for transnational terrorist groups. The thesis uses five variables to compare the two cases geography, governance, society, security, and outside influences. The thesis finds that geography has a strong influence on the creation of safe havens, particularly terrain that is difficult to access, as does weak federal governance and strong tribal societies. Furthermore, both Kabylia and the FATA have suffered chronic instability, which has provided opportunities for terrorists to establish safe havens. External influences also have played an important role in both areas by creating competing loyalties that have weakened the legitimacy of the federal government, thus helping to create favorable conditions for terrorist safe havens. Socioeconomic conditions were not a consistent factor in the creation of safe havens in this study, nor was the presence of international borders. These findings suggest that improving communications infrastructure in places like the FATA and Kabylia is an important first step in making these areas less hospitable to terrorist organizations, as is improved infrastructure, especially roads, that grant access to security forces in these areas.
- Government and Political Science
- Unconventional Warfare