1,3,6,8-Tetranitrocarbazole (TNC) Synthesis and Optimization
ARMY ARMAMENT RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER PICATINNY ARSENAL NJ ENERGETICS WARHEADS AND MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY DIRECTORATE
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The purpose of this program was to optimize the synthesis of 1,3,6,8-tetranitrocarbazole TNC. This material is used in pyrotechnic formulations. The process begins with the addition of carbazole to 90 nitric acid while maintaining the reactor temperature at 45 deg C. After all the carbazole is added, more nitric acid is introduced to raise its final concentration to 94. The mixture is then heated to 80 deg C and held for 2 hrs. A 55 nitric acid quench 55 is added to the mixture and allowed to cool to ambient temperature. The product is filtered and washed with 70 nitric acid and water. The yield of crude TNC is 40 to 65. The TNC purification process involves digesting the TNC in acetone at reflux for 30 to 60 min, followed by quenching the slurry with water. Finally, the TNC solids are filtered, further washed with water, and recovered as a crystal product.