Design Tool for Planning Permanganate Injection Systems
ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY TECHNOLOGY CERTIFICATION PROGRAM OFFICE (DOD) ARLINGTON VA
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In Situ Chemical Oxidation ISCO with permanganate MnO4 has been applied at hundreds of sites to treat aquifers contaminated with chlorinated ethenes and other contaminants. In this process, a MnO4 solution is injected into the subsurface using temporary points or permanent wells. Once injected, the MnO4 is transported through the aquifer by ambient or induced groundwater flow. Major capital costs associated with the process include a purchase of the chemical reagent e.g. permanganate b installation of injection points or wells and c labor and equipment to implement the injection. For ISCO to be effective, the permanganate must contact the contaminant. This can be difficult in many aquifers because natural heterogeneities can result in flow bypassing around lower permeability zones. A variety of methods can be used to provide more effective reagent distribution including injecting more reagent, injecting more water to distribute the reagent and using more closely spaced injection points. However, all of these approaches increase costs. In this project, we have developed a design tool to assist users in developing more effective and less costly permanganate injection systems.
- Inorganic Chemistry