For and from Cyberspace: Conceptualizing Cyber Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance
AIR UNIV MAXWELL AFB AL AIR FORCE RESEARCH INST
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Unlike ISR operations in the natural domains, those in cyberspace have yet to be formally defined in joint or service doctrine. Despite wide reference to CYBINT, its relationship to signals intelligence and open-source intelligence, and even calls to establish more granular disciplines such as SkypeINT or VoIPINT, current thinking on the subject remains immature.4 As Lt Gen Larry D. James, deputy chief of staff for ISR, remarked in 2011, We re just starting to think through some of those things from an Air Force perspective. 5 Thus, although the term cyber ISR has gained increasing traction within Air Force ISR circles, it has simultaneously drawn queries from elsewhere within the Department of Defense DOD and the Air Staff as to its meaning.6 This article begins by offering a conceptual starting point as a springboard to clarity and future doctrinal refinement.
- Military Intelligence