Tsunami Propagation Models Based on First Principles
ARMY RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING COMMAND REDSTONE ARSENAL AL
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Tsunamis are ocean waves generated by the displacement of a large volume of water due to earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides or other causes above or below the ocean floor e.g., Karling, 2005 Parker, 2012. The great Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004 will be remembered for its ferocity, devastation and unprecedented loss of life for a long time Stewart, 2005 The Indian Ocean Tsunami, 2011. It is also the same tsunami which has galvanized the international community to set up warning systems and undertake preventive measures against the onslaught of future tsunamis in the vulnerable regions around the globe. A surge of scientific studies on all aspects of the tsunami is in evidence in the literature. And a volume entitled The Tsunami Threat Research and Technology M rner ed., 2011 has been brought out. The current volume entitled Tsunami Lopez, ed., 2012 is a sequel to the above in a continued effort to promote understanding and predicting future tsunamis and warning the populace in the potentially vulnerable areas. There are three distinct stages of a tsunami event 1 Generation 2 Propagation and 3 Inundationlandfall cf. Cecioni Belloti, 2011. The generation stage is the most complex and most difficult to analyze, since each tsunami is different and no single mechanism can account for all tsunamis. The inundation stage is also different for different areas affected, and again, no single scenario can describe all affected areas. The propagation stage covers the most extensive area, and is the only one that can be attacked by simple theory and analysis, even though detailed numerical models are found in the literature see, for example, Imteaz, et al., 2011, and the references therein. These models consist of solving hydrodynamic equations with suitable boundary conditions that necessarily involve tedious numerical integrations.
- Hydrology, Limnology and Potamology