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Organizational Change in the U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency
ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MILITARY STUDIES
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The creation of the Customs and Border Protection CBP in 2003 was a monumental, yet incomplete organizational step towards integrating border protection operations. Customs and Border Protection is constantly improving integration and unity of effort among its operational components the Office of Field Operations OFO, Office of Border Patrol OBP, and the Office of Air and Marine OAM. In October 2010, Homeland Security Secretary Napolitano approved CBP Commissioner Bersins request to initiate a Joint Field Command JFC configuration modeled on Department of Defense regional unified commands. A JFC groups all elements of OFO, OBP, and OAM in a defined geographical area under one regional commander and headquarters. Although CBP has not conducted a formal assessment of the first JFC in Arizona, confusion surrounds the appropriateness of joint configurations in CBP and any decision to continue their implementation across the organization. The question is, is the CBP effort likely to succeed Joint Field Command-Arizona is only a year old so there are no meaningful empirical measures of effectiveness available. Therefore, this study drew from organization theory to determine why CBP needed to change, to assess the change itself the JFC, and to examine CBPs implementation of the change. Henry Mintzbergs typology regarding basic organizational configurations provides a means to classify CBPs structure and establish the requirements for change. Insight from organizational design theorists, homeland security experts, and military strategist Everett Dolman provide a valid framework for assessing how well the JFC meets CBPs requirements. Models of organizational change, like the Burke-Litwin model, facilitate an assessment of CBPs transformation because they identify factors influencing the durability and acceptance of reforms.
APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE