Animal and Rabies Control in Joint Operations Areas (Working Paper)
ARMY PUBLIC HEALTH COMMAND ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD
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Rabies is a rapidly progressive and fatal encephalitis caused by a lyssavirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. Lyssaviruses are RNA viruses that most commonly exhibit intraspecies transmission however, the rabies virus commonly spills into other species. The disease is transmitted through introduction of infected saliva into the body via bites, scratches, mucosal exposure, or rarely through inhalation of aerosolized saliva in enclosed spaces caves with infected bat colonies. Common vectors include medium to large terrestrial mammals and bats. Globally, the canine variant of rabies virus is the leading cause of human disease. The majority of human cases occur in Asia 95 and of these,99 are transmitted through contact with infected dogs. Without appropriate vaccination and population control, feral animals contribute to the maintenance of sylvatic rabies cycles in local wildlife and increased rabies risk to humans. The purpose of this paper is to be a comprehensive resource regarding the rabies virus and critical factors to consider while developing courses of action for control programs the intended audience includes working groups and individuals who deal with feral animal control. This document is an information resource only and is not intended to provide specific courses of action for program implementation. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the epidemiology, clinical signs, and etiology of rabies, as well as diagnostic modalities and current control measures and techniques. A comprehensive understanding of the virus and the environment in which it survives is essential to carrying out appropriate assessments and developing improved control methods to be used in Joint Operations Areas JOA.
- Medicine and Medical Research