Civilian Protection in the Eastern DRC: Evaluation of the MONUSCO Peacekeeping Operation
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA DEPT OF NATIONAL SECURITY AFFAIRS
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Since 2003, language mandating civilian protection POC has increasingly appeared in United Nations Security Council resolutions, peace support doctrine, and humanitarian frameworks. Despite the frequency of its use, the term lacks a universal definition and a clear gap exists between military operations that attempt to establish, introduce, andor enforce civilian protection and humanitarian approaches to civilian protection. This thesis posits three metrics that should be used to evaluate the effectiveness of peacekeeping operations that aim to establish POC rates of civilian massacres, rates of internally displaced persons, and incidents of rape and sexual violence. These criteria share both military and humanitarian priorities, and they also represent elements of conflict present in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo DRC since at least 1998. Each must be reduced to establish a minimum standard for civilian protection in the country. The United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Congo MONUSCO was charged with implementing POC in the eastern regions of the DRC beginning in 2008. This thesis considers the ability of MONUSCO to address each of these POC metrics, and shows that the mission has fallen short of achieving its mandate to instill minimum standards of civilian protection. An evaluation of the three metrics requires a brief overview of the significant armed groups in the eastern DRC to better understand their involvement in the factors of instability that undermine POC. The significant combatant groups are the states official military, the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo FARDC the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda FDLR National Congress for the Defense of the People CNDP and the Lords Resistance Army LRA. Other agents of conflict certainly perpetuate insecurity in the eastern DRC, but these are the most identifiable and disruptive actors.
- Government and Political Science
- Sociology and Law
- Unconventional Warfare