The Effect of Combat Traumatic Brain Injury on Executive Function
NATIONAL NAVAL MEDICAL CENTER BETHESDA MD
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On September 11, 2001, the world changed in ways not fully appreciated at the time. Dozens of terrorist attacks and bombings on civilian targets had been experienced in many countries in the second half of the 20th Century, including several in Europe Provisional Irish Republican Army IRA in the United Kingdom the Red Army Faction RAF in Germany the Basque Homeland and Freedom ETA in Spain and the Algerian Islamist Movement MIA in France. Some non-European countries had been targets for ongoing terrorism for decades due to fundamental religious differences, especially Israel. And even the United States had experienced two major domestic terrorist attacks in the 1990s the World Trade Center 1993 bombing that killed 6 and injured at least 1,040 others, and the Oklahoma City bombing 1995 that killed 168 and injured 680 others. However, there had never been an attack planned and carried out by terrorists trained in another country against civilians in the U.S. that resulted in such an enormous loss of life 2,992 dead or missing in one coordinated series of events. What also made this attack unique was the scope of the damage done in less than one hour by only 19 terrorists, based on careful and creative planning and a commitment to a religious belief in their cause. Nine-eleven became the worldwide expression for a new form of international terrorism that set the stage for a massive investment of U.S. resources in a conflict unlike anything seen before.
- Medicine and Medical Research