Adaptive Hessian-based Non-stationary Gaussian Process Response Surface Method for Probability Density Approximation with Application to Bayesian Solution of Large-scale Inverse Problems
TEXAS UNIV AT AUSTIN INST FOR COMPUTATIONAL ENGINEERING AND SCIENCES
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We develop an adaptive Hessian-based non-stationary Gaussian process response surface method to approximate a probability density function pdf that exploits its structure, in particular the Hessian of its negative logarithm. Of particular interest to us are pdfs that arise from the Bayesian solution of large-scale inverse problems, which imply very expensive-to-evaluate pdfs. The method can be considered as a piecewise adaptive Gaussian approximation in which a Gaussian tailored to the local Hessian of the negative log probability density is constructed for each sub- region in high dimensional parameter space. The task of efficiently partitioning the parameter space into sub-regions is done implicitly through Hessian-informed membership probability functions. The Gaussian process machinery is then employed to glue all local Gaussian approximations into a global analytical response surface that is far cheaper to evaluate than the original expensive probability density. The resulting response surface is also equipped with an analytical variance estimate that can be used to assess the uncertainty of the approximation. One of the key components of our proposed approach is an adaptive sampling strategy for exploring the parameter space efficiently during the computer experimental design step, which aims to nd training points with high probability density. The detailed construction and an analysis of the method are presented. We then demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method on several example problems, including inverse shape electromagnetic scattering in 24-dimensional parameter space.
- Statistics and Probability