The Strength of Chemical Bonds in Solids and Liquids (Preprint)
Journal article (preprint)
AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING DIRECTORATE
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The strengths of chemical bonds between atoms are accurately measured and widely available for molecular gases, but it is remarkable that a method to quantify bond strengths in liquids and solids is not available and that the strengths of these bonds are generally unknown. We propose a new term, the condensed bond enthalpy CBE, to specify the energy contained in bonds between atoms in condensed states. We develop an approach to quantify these bond strengths using bulk thermodynamic and crystallographic data, and apply it to generate a nearly complete set of elemental CBEs and a selection of CBEs between unlike metal atom pairs. We demonstrate the validity and utility of these values by applying them to several physical problems. The values reported here show a good predictive capability, and CBEs from this approach may give new insights into solution thermodynamics and emerging problems in the physical sciences.
- Atomic and Molecular Physics and Spectroscopy