Studies of Chlordane Availability and Volatility in Air Force Soils and Facilities
ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS VICKSBURG MS ENGINEER RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER
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Commercial chlordane, technical grade, is a mixture of more than 140 compounds, including the chlorocyclodiene compounds Dearth and Hites 1991. The cis- and trans- isomers of chlordane make up 60-85 of the commercial mixture depending on the manufacturing process Buchert et al. 1989. The use of chlordane in this report refers to both isomers. Commercial chlordane has been used worldwide as an effective insecticide but has been banned in the United States since the late 1980s and worldwide since 2004 due to its toxicity and persistence in the environment. Although banned for 20 years, chlordane is still being detected in soil and groundwater samples around the world Sholtz and Bidleman 2007. As bases are closed, contracted, or realigned, soil issues associated with this pesticide must be addressed including worker exposure and potential vapor intrusion resulting from rebuilding on contaminated soil. Several cases of temporary illness due to overexposure to chlordane in residences have been reported however all reported cases appear to be due to inappropriate application of the pesticide Callahan 1970, Olas et al. 1976, Vinopal and Olds 1977. An extensive survey of residences for indoor chlordane vapor concentration showed that most problems appear to be related to post-construction sub-slab injection of technical chlordane in building with ventilation ducts either in or below the foundation Livingston et al. 1981, Lillie 1981 and 1982. People are exposed to chlordane through ingestion, dermal exposure, or inhalation of vapors. Chlordane primarily affects the nervous system and the digestive system causing headaches, irritability, confusion and vision problems as well as vomiting, stomach cramps and jaundice ATSDR 1994. The EPA has set a drinking water limit of 2 ppb. The Food and Drug Administration FDA limits chlordane in fruits and vegetables to 300 ppb, and 100 ppb in animal fat and fish ATSDR 1994.
- Organic Chemistry
- Logistics, Military Facilities and Supplies
- Pesticides Pollution and Control