Comparison of Quantum and Classical Local-field Effects on Two-Level Atoms in a Dielectric
ARMY AVIATION AND MISSILE RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND ENG CTR REDSTONE ARSENAL AL
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The macroscopic quantum theory of the electromagnetic field in a dielectric medium interacting with a dense collection of embedded two-level atoms fails to reproduce a result that is obtained from an application of the classical Lorentz local-field condition. Specifically, macroscopic quantum electrodynamics predicts that the Lorentz redshift of the resonance frequency of the atoms will be enhanced by a factor of the refractive index n of the host medium. However, an enhancement factor of n2 23 is derived using the Bloembergen procedure in which the classical Lorentz local-field condition is applied to the optical Bloch equations. Both derivations are short and uncomplicated and are based on well-established physical theories, yet lead to contradictory results. Microscopic quantum electrodynamics confirms the classical local-field-based results. Then the application of macroscopic quantum electrodynamic theory to embedded atoms is proved false by a specific example in which both the correspondence principle and microscopic theory of quantum electrodynamics are violated.
- Electricity and Magnetism
- Quantum Theory and Relativity