Impact of the Manning, Training, and Utilization of Black Combat Units during World War II on the Racial Integration of the Army
ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS
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Prior to 1950, the Army restricted the service of blacks to limited roles in a racially segregated Army. During World War II, black America fought for an increased combat role, believing that contributions on the battlefield would lead to increased civil rights at home. However, during and following World War II, the Army resisted pressure for it to stop the use of segregation as a personnel management tool. Ironically, the Army finally capitulated to internal and external pressures and integrated its force from 1950 to 1954, faster than comparable changes occurred in American society. The purpose of this thesis is to determine the impact of manning, training, and utilization of black combat units during World War II on the Armys decision-making in regards to racial integration. First, this thesis analyzes the Armys justification for segregation in light of its experience in mobilizing and training black soldiers. Second, it evaluates the performance of black combat units during World War II to determine if the Armys preconceptions of their capabilities in combat are validated. Thirdly, it examines the Armys post World War II planning for the utilization of black soldiers. Lastly, this thesis studies the Armys implementation of Executive Order 9981.
- Personnel Management and Labor Relations
- Military Forces and Organizations