What Can We Do for Soft X-ray Optics by Ray Tracing?
OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH ASIAN OFFICE APO SAN FRANCISCO 96503
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The advent of third-generation synchrotron radiation SR sources, the development of ultra large scale integrated ULSI circuits, and the expanding development of space observatories have created an increasing need for high quality, well characterized optical components and systems for use in the soft x-ray SXR region. For high-brightness third generation SR sources, beamline optics are required to withstand extreme power loads while providing precisely tailored radiation to experimental stations. The ever-increasing density of integrated circuit patterns is approaching fundamental limits of what can be accomplished with ultraviolet excimer lasers, and next-generation microelectronics will require the development of sophisticated and complex SXR optical systems. Next-generation SXR space observatories also will require utilization of complex aspheric optical elements in their telescopes and spectrometers to achieve large aperture combined with the highest possible spatial and spectral resolutions. It should also be noted that the need for new high precision SXR optics and optical systems has pressing applications in many other fields, ranging from biology to materials research. Due to short operating wavelengths, SXR optics must meet very stringent metrological requirements not usual to conventional optical elements used at longer wavelengths. The current lack of sufficiently precise, yet practically convenient metrological technologies presents varying degrees of difficulty in judging the quality of SXR optical components and the accuracy of an assembled optical system. At this stage of the development of SXR optics, it is desirable for manufacturers as well as users to have a practical design method as well as a simulation method that can provide tolerance estimates for the fabrication of optical components needed to secure the highest possible performance of a planned SXR optical system.
- Nuclear Physics and Elementary Particle Physics