Accession Number:

ADA532003

Title:

Navy Lithium Battery Safety

Descriptive Note:

Conference paper

Corporate Author:

NAVAL ORDNANCE SAFETY AND SECURITY ACTIVITY INDIAN HEAD MD

Personal Author(s):

Report Date:

2010-07-14

Pagination or Media Count:

32.0

Abstract:

Lithium batteries are electrochemical reactors that transform chemical energy into electrical energy on demand. Lithium metal batteries were first marketed in early 1970, primarily for military use. They have a very high gravimetric and volumetric energy density compared to all other batteries-- five to ten times the energy of other battery systems. The reactive nature of the lithium chemistry can lead to energetic failure due to such insults as crushing, penetration, vibration, overheating, andor manufacturing defects leading to internal shorts. Lithium primary i.e. non-rechargeable batteries include both active and reserve batteries. Reserve batteries remain in an inactive condition until needed, at which time the electrolyte is introduced into the cell. The shelf life of lithium reserve batteries can be measured in decades, so they have been widely used in munitions systems for short bursts of power during deployment of a projectile. Liquid reserve batteries use an electrolyte that is a liquid at ambient temperatures, and reserved in a separate reservoir. Thermal reserve batteries use an electrolyte that is a solid at ambient temperatures and must be melted by an energetic material to activate the battery. Improvements in shelf life of active lithium primary batteries has led to a reduction in use of reserve batteries in some weapons systems, with a concomitant increase in potential hazards due to the presence of an activated cell in the article.

Subject Categories:

  • Electrochemical Energy Storage
  • Safety Engineering

Distribution Statement:

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE