A Review of Central Nervous System (CNS)/Cognitive Effects Due to Blast
Interim rept. Apr-Dec 2006
L-3 COMMUNICATIONS /JAYCOR SAN DIEGO CA
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An extensive literature review of central nervous system CNScognitive effects due to blast overpressure has been performed to support the assessment of human effects due to flashbang devices. Epidemiology and laboratory data have shown evidence that correlates CNS injuries to blast, but the primary mechanism of injury on the gross and molecular level is not understood. Laboratory data have suggested that blast induced brain injuries have similarities to traumatic brain injuries TBI and mild TBI mTBI. Blasts have been shown to start cell signaling cascades which end with nerve death in the brain. Full body blast test animals have shown an increase in certain molecules linked with nerve cell apoptosis and cognition dysfunction. Data also suggest that blast overpressure can cause adverse cognitive effects resulting in executive deficits similar to those produced in other TBI models. Long-term cognitive effects of blast include disturbances in attention and memory, and a delayed reaction time in problem solving. Veterans returning with blast injury also exhibit post-concussion symptoms similar to those seen in other forms of TBI. Since the mechanism relating blast and cognitive deficits is not known, the authors recommend that an effort be made to definitively characterize that mechanism.
- Anatomy and Physiology
- Medicine and Medical Research
- Weapons Effects (Biological)