Analysis of Deactivation Mechanism on a Multi-Component Sulfur-Tolerant Steam Reforming Catalyst
TOLEDO UNIV OH
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Conventional fuels exist in limited reserves and have adverse environmental impacts. Researchers are striving hard to either introduce alternative sources to replace conventional fuels or use the existing sources efficiently. Towards attaining sustainable development, it is considered an obligation to use the existing energy reserves efficiently with reduced environmental issues. Fuel cells are energy conversion devices which convert chemical energy into electricity. They are promising in that they do not cause pollution at source and can operate at relatively high energy efficiencies. The only by-product coming out of a fuel cell is water. Use of the fuel cell in transportation sector has been an area of active research. While car manufacturers are rigorously looking at challenges in replacing internal combustion engine with fuel cell stack, it has attracted also attracted a great deal of attention from heavy duty trucks. Trucks generally idle about 20-40 of the time the engine is running, depending on season and operation. During idling of trucks, the internal combustion engine is known to operate at much lower efficiencies, typically less than 5. It is here where fuel cells can be used effectively as auxiliary power units APUs. While the efficiency in a typical internal combustion engine of a truck rarely exceeds 20, a fuel cell normally operates at around 40 to 60. The maximum theoretical efficiency of a hydrogen fuel cell is around 83 and the higher efficiencies can be attributed to the fact that they do not operate on a thermal cycle unlike internal combustion engines. Hydrogen used to run a fuel cell can be produced from transportation fuels.
- Electrochemical Energy Storage