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Arboviral Etiologies of Acute Febrile Illnesses in Western South America, 2000-2007

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Journal article

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Background Arthropod-borne viruses arboviruses are among the most common agents of human febrile illness worldwide and the most important emerging pathogens, causing multiple notable epidemics of human disease over recent decades. Despite the public health relevance, little is know about the geographic distribution, relative impact, and risk factors for arbovirus infection in many regions of the world. Our objectives were to describe the arboviruses associated with acute undifferentiated febrile illness in participating clinics in four countries in South America and to provide detailed epidemiological analysis of arbovirus infection in Iquitos, Peru, where more extensive monitoring was conducted. MethodologyFindings A clinic-based syndromic surveillance system was implemented in 13 locations in Ecuador, Peru Bolivia, and Paraguay. Serum samples and demographic information were collected from febrile participants reporting to local health clinics or hospitals. Acute-phase sera were tested for viral infection by immunofluorescence assay or RT-PCR while acute- and convalescent-phase sera were tested for pathogen-specific IgM by ELISA. Between May 2000 and December 2007, 20,880 participants were included in the study, with evidence for recent arbovirus infection detected for 6,793 32.5. Dengue viruses Flavivirus were the most common arbovirus infections, totaling 26.0 of febrile episodes with DENV-3 as the most common serotype. Alphavirus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus VEEV and Mayaro virus MAYV and Orthobunyavirus Oropouche virus OROV, Group C viruses, and Guaroa virus infections were both observed in approximately 3 of febrile episodes. In Iquitos, risk factors for VEEV and MAYV infection included being male and reporting to a rural vs urban clinic. In contrast, OROV infection was similar between sexes and type of clinic. Conclusio

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  • Medicine and Medical Research
  • Microbiology

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