Phylogeny of Anophelinae (Diptera: Culicidae) Based on Nuclear Ribosomal and Mitochondrial DNA Sequences
SAO PAULO UNIV (BRAZIL)
Pagination or Media Count:
Phylogenetic relationships among thirty-two species of mosquitoes in subfamily Anophelinae are inferred from portions of the mitochondrial genes COI and COII, the nuclear 18S small subunit rRNA gene and the expansion D2 region of the nuclear large subunit 28S rRNA gene. Sequences were obtained from the genera Anopheles, Bironella and Chagasia. Representatives of all six subgenera of Anopheles were included Anopheles Cellia, Kerteszia, Lophopodomyia, Nyssorhynchus and Stethomyia. Using parsimony and maximum likelihood methods, various combinations of these DNA sequenced data were analysed separately 18S, 28S, combined 18S and 28S, combined COI and COII, and combined 18S, 28S, COI and COII total evidence. The combined rDNA data contain strong phylogenetic signal moderately to strongly supporting most clades in MP and ML analyses however, the mtDNA data analysed as either nucleotide or amino acid sequences contain little phylogenetic signal, except for relationships of very recently derived groups of species and at the deepest level for the monophyly of Anophelinae. The paraphyly of Anopheles relative to Bironella is confirmed by most analyses and statistical tests. Support for the monophyly of subgenera Anopheles, Cellia, Kerteszia and Nyssorhynchus is indicated by most analyses. Subgenus Lophopodomyia is reconstructed as the sister to Bironella, nested within a clade also containing Nyssorhynchus and Kerteszia. The most basal relationships within genus Anopheles are not well resolved by any of the data partitions, although the results of statistical analyses of the rDNA data S-H-tests, likelihood ratio tests for monophyly and Bayesian MCMC analyses suggest that the clade consisting of Bironella, Lophopodomyia Nyssorhynchus and Kerteszia is the sister to the clade containing Cellia and Anopheles.