Review of Instrumented Indentation
NATIONAL INST OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY GAITHERSBURG MD
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Indentation or hardness testing has long been used for characterization and quality control of materials, but the results are not absolute and depend on the test method. In general, traditional hardness tests consist of the application of a single static force and corresponding dwell time with a specified tip shape and tip material, resulting in a hardness impression that has dimensions on the order of millimeters. The output of these hardness testers is typically a single indentation hardness value that is a measure of the relative penetration depth of the indentation tip into the sample. For Instrumented indentation, also known as depth-sensing indentation or nanoindentation, is increasingly being used to probe the mechanical response of materials from metals and ceramics to polymeric and biological materials. The additional levels of control, sensitivity, and data acquisition offered by instrumented indentation systems have resulted in numerous advances in materials science, particularly regarding fundamental mechanisms of mechanical behavior at micrometer and even sub-micrometer length scales. Continued improvements of instrumented indentation testing towards absolute quantification of a wide range of material properties and behavior will require advances in instrument calibration, measurement protocols, and analysis tools and techniques. In this paper, an overview of instrumented indentation is given with regard to current instrument technology and analysis methods. Research efforts at the National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST aimed at improving the related measurement science are discussed.
- Ceramics, Refractories and Glass
- Properties of Metals and Alloys
- Test Facilities, Equipment and Methods