The Status of Cesium Beam Frequency Standards
HEWLETT-PACKARD LABS PALO ALTO CA
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There has been a lot of progress in cesium beam frequency standards in the last few years some of which will be reported here. Optical pumping is being pursued actively in a number of laboratories. Optically slowed and cooled beams have been demonstrated as well as traps for cold neutral atoms. The microwave cavity performance with regard to local phase shift at the beam holes has been improved by use of carefully designed and built ring structures for the cavity ends. Work is being done on improvements in electronics with some emphasis on use of digital circuitry and microprocessors. The frequency pulling due to microwave deltaM - 1 transitions Ramsey pulling has been analyzed and shown to be important. Status of cesium beam frequency standards in some of the laboratories as well as some of the commercial work will be discussed. Since much of the laboratory work going on involves optical pumping and detection, those items will get the most attention here.
- Test Facilities, Equipment and Methods