State of the Art and Future Directions for the Atomic Hydrogen Maser
SMITHSONIAN ASTROPHYSICAL OBSERVATORY CAMBRIDGE MA
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The present status of technology development for atomic hydrogen masers H-masers is reviewed. The limitations to frequency stability and accuracy are discussed with emphasis on the problems associated with cavity resonator instability and the lack of reproducibility and stability of the storage volume wall coating frequency shift. New types of coatings developed in the Soviet Union and better, cavity resonator materials, are expected to make possible frequency at the 10-16 level at 104 sec. Better control of systematic effects should extend the long-term stability to levels better than 10-15 for intervals beyond one day, Present use of H-masers as flywheel oscillators in timekeeping systems is discussed as is the outlook for the future cryogenic and room temperature H-masers as flywheel oscillators to operate very high resolution frequency discriminators based on the newly evolving technology of trapped and cooled ions and atoms.
- Lasers and Masers