Demonstration of an Integrated Compliance Model for Predicting Copper Fate and Effects in DoD Harbors
SPACE AND NAVAL WARFARE SYSTEMS CENTER PACIFIC SAN DIEGO CA
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The Environmental Security Technology Certification Program supported Project ER-0523 on the demonstration of an integrated modeling system that provides an improved methodology for achieving copper compliance in harbors. This model is consistent with the current regulatory framework based on the Biotic Ligand Model BLM for freshwater. The integrated model has two components, the seawater-BLM developed as part of this project, and the existing hydrodynamic transport and fate algorithm, Curvilinear Hydrodynamics in Three Dimensions model. The integrated model is applied at a harborwide scale, and accounts for the natural physical, chemical, biological, and toxicological characteristics of the harbor to achieve more scientifically based, cost-effective compliance. The integrated model is also a management tool for the optimization of efforts on source control, as it is robust enough for forecasting effects of controls on copper concentration and any associated toxicity in the harbor resulting from these controls. The integrated model was demonstrated in San Diego Bay and Pearl Harbor. In both harbors, the spatial and temporal distributions of copper species, toxic effects, and Water-Effect Ratio predicted by the integrated model are comparable to previously measured data. These results substantiate the support by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for future incorporation of the seawater-BLM in a full-strength seawater criterion. In San Diego Bay, the integrated model estimates that there is a safety factor of two between the actual copper concentrations and the predicted site-specific water quality standards WQS, indicating that application of the predicted site-specific WQS will result in achievable discharge limits while providing the level of protection intended by the Clean Water Act. This demonstration contributes to the transition of this technology to the user community by providing a clear example of implementation at real-world DoD sites.
- Physical and Dynamic Oceanography
- Logistics, Military Facilities and Supplies
- Water Pollution and Control