Accession Number:

ADA496499

Title:

Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 10, Number 1, January/February 2004

Descriptive Note:

Corporate Author:

ARMED FORCES HEALTH SURVEILLANCE CENTER SILVER SPRING MD

Personal Author(s):

Report Date:

2004-02-01

Pagination or Media Count:

21.0

Abstract:

Leishmaniasis is an arthropod-transmitted zoonotic disease that is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania. Leishmania parasites are transmitted through bites of infective female sand flies Lutzomyia species in the Americas and Phlebotomus species elsewhere. The disease is endemic in many areas of Asia, Africa, the Middle East, South and Central America, and southern Europe. The clinical expressions of leishmaniasis are highly variable and primarily dependent on the infecting leishmania species and host immune responses. Cutaneous, mucosal, and visceral leishmaniasis, the three major clinical forms, are manifestations of skin, naso-oropharyngeal mucous membrane, and systemic infections, respectively. The courses of cutaneous and mucosal leishmaniasis are characterized by papules that progress to nodules and eventually to ulcers which are often multiple and can be disfiguring. The manifestations of visceral leishmaniasis which can be life threatening include fever, weakness, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, hyperglobulinemia, and emaciation. Not all infected persons develop signs or symptoms of leishmaniasis but among those who do, times from infection to first clinical manifestations generally range from a week to many months, with much longer periods e.g., up to 10 years for visceral infections. U.S. military personnel are exposed to risks of leishmamiasis during training and operations in endemic areas. Of recent and ongoing concern, leishmaniasis is endemic in many areas of Iraq, Afghanistan, and Kuwait. During the past year, surveillance of female phlebotomine sand flies in areas of Iraq where the U.S. military operated revealed an overall infection rate among nearly 24,000 female sand flies of 1.4.

Subject Categories:

  • Personnel Management and Labor Relations
  • Medicine and Medical Research
  • Microbiology

Distribution Statement:

APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE