Assessment of Superstructure Ice Protection as Applied to Offshore Oil Operations Safety: Problems, Hazards, Needs, and Potential Transfer Technologies
ENGINEER RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER HANOVER NH COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LAB
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Superstructure sea spray icing and atmospheric icing from snow, freezing rain, freezing drizzle, rime, sleet, and frost reduce the safety of offshore platform and supply boat operations. Though icing reduces safety and reduces operational efficiency, it has not caused the loss of offshore platforms. Supply boats are at greater risk of loss from icing than are platforms. Platforms operating in cold regions are protected primarily by designs that reduce ice accretion, coupled with the selective use of heat. A variety of deicing and anti-icing technologies have been tested on offshore platforms and boats, but with little overall success. New technologies and modern versions of old technologies, now used successfully in aviation, the electric power industry, and on transportation systems in general, may be transferable to the offshore environment. Fifteen classes of deicing and anti-icing technologies are identified, explained, and reviewed, as are numerous ice detection technologies for controlling deicing and anti-icing systems. These technologies are the population from which new marine ice protection systems may be selected.
- Snow, Ice and Permafrost