Equine Risk Assessment for Insecticides Used in Adult Mosquito Management
MONTANA STATE UNIV BOZEMAN
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Since West Nile virus WNV was introduced to New York City in 1999, it has subsequently spread through the Americas, creating human and animal health risks. Our equine risk assessment focused on three pyrethroid insecticides phenothrin, resmethrin, and permethrin, pyrethrins, and two organophosphate insecticides malathion and naled. Piperonyl butoxide, a synergist commonly used in pyrethroids, was also assessed. The objective was to use deterministic and probabilistic risk assessment methodologies to evaluate health risks to horses from vector management tactics used for control of adult mosquitoes. Our exposure estimates were derived from the Kenaga nomogram for food deposition, AgDRIFT for deposition onto soil and hair, AERMOD for ambient air concentrations, and PRZMEXAMS for water concentrations. We used the risk quotient RQ method for our assessment with the RQ level of concern LOC set at 1.0. RQs were determined by comparing the exposure to no-observable-effect-levels. Acute deterministic RQs ranged from 0.0004 for phenothrin to 0.2 for naled. Subchronic deterministic RQs ranged from 0.001 for phenothrin to 0.6 for naled. The probabilistic assessment revealed estimates of deterministic acute and subchronic RQs were highly conservative. Our assessment revealed that risks to horses from adult mosquito insecticides are low and not likely to exceed the LOC.