Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 15, Number 5, June 2008
ARMED FORCES HEALTH SURVEILLANCE CENTER SILVER SPRING MD
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Throughout history, military populations have been at high risk of acute respiratory illnesses. In the U.S. military, acute respiratory illnesses are leading causes of hospitalizations and ambulatory visits of service members. Upper respiratory infectious illnesses are extremely common among U.S. service members, particularly among recruits and during fall-winter cold and influenza seasons. Upper respiratory illnesses are among the leading causes of medical encounters and limited duty dispositions of service members. Acute infections of the lower respiratory tract e.g., pneumonias are less frequent but more debilitating than upper respiratory illnesses. Consistently, pneumonias and influenza are among the leading causes of hospitalizations of service members. Finally, there are sporadic cases and rare outbreaks of severe, life threatening acute respiratory illnesses, usually in recruit camps and during training and operational deployments. In 2003, there were 19 cases of severe acute respiratory illnesses among U.S. service members deployed in the Middle East and south-central Asia. Two of the casesr were fatal - despite extensive investigation, the etiologies of the cases were not identified. This report summarizes frequencies, seasonal variability, and general trends of hospitalizations of U.S. service members for pneumonia and influenza and severe acute respiratory illnesses e.g., acute respiratory failure, acute respiratory distress from January 1997 to April 2008.
- Personnel Management and Labor Relations
- Medicine and Medical Research
- Medical Facilities, Equipment and Supplies