A High-Order, Adaptive, Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method for the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations
MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE DEPT OF AERONAUTICS AND ASTRONAUTICS
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This thesis presents high-order, discontinuous Galerkin DG discretizations of the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes RANS equations and an output-based error estimation and mesh adaptation algorithm for these discretizations. In particular, DG discretizations of the RANS equations with the Spalart-Allmaras SA turbulence model are examined. The dual consistency of multiple DG discretizations of the RANS-SA system is analyzed. The approach of simply weighting gradient dependent source terms by a test function and integrating is shown to be dual inconsistent. A dual consistency correction for this discretization is derived. The analysis also demonstrates that discretizations based on the popular mixed formulation, where dependence on the state gradient is handled by introducing additional state variables, are generally asymptotically dual consistent. Numerical results are presented to confirm the results of the analysis. The output error estimation and output-based adaptation algorithms used here are extensions of methods previously developed in the finite volume and finite element communities. In particular, the methods are extended for application on the curved, highly anisotropic meshes required for boundary conforming, high-order RANS simulations. Two methods for generating such curved meshes are demonstrated. One relies on a user-defined global mapping of the physical domain to a straight meshing domain. The other uses a linear elasticity node movement scheme to add curvature to an initially linear mesh. Finally, to improve the robustness of the adaptation process, an unsteady algorithm, where the mesh is adapted at each time step, is presented. The goal of the unsteady procedure is to allow mesh adaptation prior to converging a steady state solution, not to obtain a time-accurate solution of an unsteady problem.
- Numerical Mathematics
- Fluid Mechanics