Multibiometric Systems: Fusion Strategies and Template Security
MICHIGAN STATE UNIV EAST LANSING DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE/ENGINEERING
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Multibiometric systems are gaining popularity because they are able to overcome limitations such as non-universality, noisy sensor data and susceptibility to spoof attacks common in unibiometric systems. We address two critical issues in the design of a multibiometric system, namely, fusion methodology and template security. We propose a fusion methodology based on the Neyman-Pearson theorem for combination of match scores provided by multiple biometric matchers. The likelihood ratio LR test used in the Neyman-Pearson theorem directly maximizes the genuine accept rate GAR at any desired false accept rate FAR. We extend the likelihood ratio based fusion scheme to incorporate the quality of the biometric samples. The LR framework can be used for designing sequential multibiometric systems by constructing a binary decision tree classifier based on the marginal likelihood ratios of the individual matchers. The use of image quality information further improves the GAR to 90 at a FAR of 0001. Next, we show that the proposed likelihood ratio based fusion framework is also applicable to a multibiometric system operating in the identification mode. We investigate rank level fusion strategies and propose a hybrid scheme that utilizes both ranks and scores to perform fusion in the identification scenario. Fusion of multiple biometric sources requires storage of multiple templates for the same user corresponding to the individual biometric sources. Template security is an important issue because stolen biometric templates cannot be revoked. We propose a scheme for securing multibiometric templates as a single entity using the fuzzy vault framework. We have developed fully automatic implementa- tions of a ngerprint-based fuzzy vault that secures minutiae templates and an iris cryptosystem that secures iris code templates. We also demonstrate that a multibiometric vault achieves better recognition performance and higher security compared to a unibiometric vault.
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