Accession Number:



Treatability Study Report for In SITU Lead Immobilization Using Phosphate-Based Binders

Descriptive Note:

Final rept.

Corporate Author:


Report Date:


Pagination or Media Count:



Metal contamination in soil is found on 69 percent of identified Department of Defense DoD sites with lead being the predominant heavy metal of concern. Solidificationstabilization methods are currently the most used in situ metal-contamination treatment technologies. The treatability study described in this report was designed to develop the information necessary to support the immobilization of lead contaminants in soil by in situ treatment with phosphate-based binders. The potential demonstration site for field treatment was a small arms firing range impact area at Camp Withycombe, Oregon. The study consisted of laboratory monitoring of samples treated to immobilize lead contamination using phosphate-based binders marketed by several vendors. The study was conducted by the U.S. Army Aberdeen Test Center ATC and Mississippi State University MSU under U.S. Army Developmental Test Command DTC Project No. 9-CO-160-000-572. This study was sponsored by the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program ESTCP under ESTCP Project No. ER-0111. Technology performance was evaluated based on evidence of reduced soluble lead mobility, reduced human health risk, impact on soil biota, changes in soil physical properties, plant uptake, and mobility of other contaminants of concern associated with the proposed demonstration site. Data to support the evaluation of these criteria were produced through laboratory studies using soil collected at Camp Withycombe. The study utilized leaching and vegetation monitoring methods to evaluate the stability of the treated soil by attempting to build a body of evidence that indicated the formation of stable lead complexes. The results of the study were mixed in that variability in lead stability was observed in soil treated by all vendors of in situ phosphate stabilization methods.

Subject Categories:

  • Solid Wastes and Pollution and Control
  • Environmental Health and Safety
  • Logistics, Military Facilities and Supplies

Distribution Statement: