Historical Review of Atomic Frequency Standards Used in Space Systems - 10 Year Update
BOEING CORP LOS ANGELES CA SATELLITE DEVELOPMENT CENTER
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A 1996 paper estimated that the total number of space-borne atomic frequency standards AFS is no more than several hundred 1, p. 24. The number of atomic frequency standards in space was dominated by the GPS, GLONASS, and Milstar satellite constellations. In this paper, we present an update to the historical review of the AFSs used in space systems. We will briefly review the systems existing in 1996, and add the newer systems Galileo, GPS IIR and IIF, GLONASS-M, Cassini-Huygens, AEHF, and QZSS and potential space systems PARCS, PHARAO, Beidou using atomic frequency standards. We have estimated that there have been a total of 452 atomic frequency standards launched into orbit for use on communications and scientific payloads. We conclude the paper with a review of the 1996 predictions for future AFSs and discuss the future as seen in 2006.
- Test Facilities, Equipment and Methods
- Unmanned Spacecraft
- Navigation and Guidance